Why Does My Arm Hurt When I Throw a Baseball?

The crack of the bat, the roar of the crowd – baseball is a game filled with exhilarating moments. However, for some players, the experience is marred by the unwelcome companion of arm pain. If you’ve ever wondered why your arm hurts when throwing a baseball, you’re not alone. This comprehensive guide aims to unravel the mysteries behind this discomfort, exploring common causes, preventive measures, and effective strategies for recovery.

Anatomy of Throwing

The anatomy involved in the throwing motion includes the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, and fingers along with the muscles, tendons, and ligaments that control and support these joints. The shoulder joint relies on the rotator cuff muscles along with the deltoids and pectoralis major to generate force and mobility. The elbow joint hinges to extend and flex the throwing arm, enabled by muscles like the biceps, triceps, and brachialis connecting the humerus to the ulna and radius. At the wrist and hand, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles fine-tune the positioning and release of the ball.

Throwing engages precise timing and coordination between the upper and lower body to transfer momentum to the ball. It involves a kinetic chain sequence through phases like the windup, early cocking, late cocking, acceleration, release, and follow through. Each phase requires specific muscles for stability, mobility, and force generation. Understanding the anatomy and biomechanics involved provides the foundation for analyzing causes of arm pain and preventing throwing injuries.

Common Arm Injuries in Baseball

Arm Hurt When I Throw a Baseball

One of the most common baseball arm injuries is Little League elbow, which is elbow pain caused by overuse and repetitive stress on the elbow joint. According to research, 25% of baseball players between ages 8-12 will experience elbow pain from overuse. Medial epicondylitis, more commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is also a frequent overuse injury in young baseball players.

Additional common arm injuries in baseball include:

  • Rotator cuff tears – tears of the muscles and tendons around the shoulder joint. These injuries often require surgery and extensive rehab.

  • Labrum tears – the labrum is cartilage that helps stabilize the shoulder joint. Labrum tears commonly occur in overhead throwing athletes.

  • Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries – stretches and tears of the UCL, which connects and stabilizes the bones of the upper arm and forearm. Also known as Tommy John surgery when reconstruction is required.

  • Shoulder impingement – irritation and inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons, causing pain especially when raising the arm overhead.

  • Bicep tendinitis – inflammation of the bicep tendon that runs across the front of the shoulder joint. Causes a painful, pinching sensation when throwing.

  • Strains – tears or pulls of muscles in the arm, forearm, or shoulder from explosive, high velocity throwing. Common in pitchers.

Many of these injuries are acute or develop gradually over time from the repetitive, violent motion of throwing a baseball. Proper rest, mechanics, and a balanced strengthening program are key to injury prevention.

Why Throwing Causes Arm Pain

Throwing a baseball at high speeds puts tremendous biomechanical forces on the arm that can lead to injury if not managed properly. During the throwing motion, the shoulder rotates at high velocity which generates large forces across the elbow and shoulder joints. This repetitive overhand throwing motion is linked to various arm injuries if mechanics are poor or volume is too high.

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The phases of throwing a baseball involve coordinated motion of the entire body. The shoulder undergoes massive external rotation torques during acceleration that must be countered by shoulder musculature. Flawed throwing mechanics like opening up the shoulders too early can increase strain on the rotator cuff and labrum. Similarly, weakness in external rotators can lead to injuries over time as the shoulder is pushed beyond its limits.

Besides the shoulder, the elbow endures large valgus forces when the arm is cocked during throwing. Repeatedly subjecting the elbow to these varus stresses can irritate the ulnar collateral ligament and lead to ligament sprains or tears. Lack of rest between throwing sessions prevents proper tissue healing and increases likelihood of overuse injuries.

With proper throwing mechanics, routine rest, and a structured training program focused on arm care, overhand throwing athletes can minimize their injury risk. However, biomechanics research makes clear that pitching and throwing at high intensities place substantial demands on the shoulder and elbow. Athletes must monitor their bodies closely and recognize when to dial back throwing volume to avoid acute or overuse arm injuries.

Preventing Throwing Injuries

Arm Hurt Throw a Baseball

A significant amount of throwing injuries can be prevented in baseball players through proper training, mechanics, equipment, and rest. Proper throwing mechanics are critical – this includes using the entire body to generate force, maintaining proper arm slot and release point, and avoiding overextension or opening up too early. Young players should focus on developing efficient mechanics versus maximizing velocity.

Strength training the muscles of the shoulder, rotator cuff, back, core, and legs helps support the arm during throwing and reduces injury risk. Weight lifting, resistance bands, and bodyweight exercises can build strength. Avoid overuse and allow for rest – take at least 1-2 days off per week and several months off from pitching each year. Use proper equipment sized for the player’s age and size. Throwing with wood or metal bats stresses the arm more than lightweight composite or alloy bats.

It’s also essential to warm up properly before throwing. Warm ups and pregame routines should include stretching, running, and light catch throwing. Gradually increasing throwing distance and velocity is key. Cooling down after activity also aids recovery. Implementing a smart throwing program, tailored rest and strength training, and focusing on mechanics goes a long way toward keeping a baseball player’s arm healthy and injury-free.

Treating Minor Arm Pain

Most cases of minor arm pain in baseball players can be treated at home using simple methods like rest, ice, anti-inflammatory medication, massage, and stretching exercises (source).

Rest is crucial to allow the arm tissues to heal. Taking a break from throwing and overhead arm motions can help reduce inflammation and pain. Ice should be applied for 15-20 minutes several times per day, especially after throwing, to relieve soreness by numbing the area and constricting blood vessels. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen can further reduce swelling.

Gentle massage and stretching of the arm muscles can encourage blood flow, relax tight tissues, and increase range of motion. However, if pain persists for more than 2 weeks or worsens despite conservative treatment, it’s time to see a sports medicine doctor or orthopedic specialist. An accurate diagnosis is needed before starting physical therapy or considering other treatment options.

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Recovering From a Throwing Injury

Throwing injuries often require rest, rehabilitation, and a gradual return to throwing to allow for proper healing. The recovery time depends on factors like the exact diagnosis, severity, pitch volume before injury, and the athlete’s age.

For minor injuries like rotator cuff tendinitis or shoulder impingement, recovery may take 2-6 weeks. Most patients start physical therapy focusing on range of motion and strengthening exercises. Gradual return to throwing begins once pain-free, following a structured interval throwing program over 4-6 weeks.

More severe injuries like SLAP tears or rotator cuff tears often require surgical repair. Following surgery, the arm is immobilized for about 6 weeks before beginning physical therapy. The throwing program starts around 12 weeks post-op and progresses very gradually over 4-6 months. Full recovery typically takes 9-12 months before returning to full participation.

Elbow injuries like medial epicondylitis are similarly managed with rest, physical therapy, and a gradual interval throwing program over 6-12 weeks. Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears may require Tommy John surgery and a 12-18 month recovery process.

Patience and strict adherence to rehab protocols is key. Returning to throwing too quickly risks re-injury and longer recovery times. Consulting sports medicine experts helps ensure a full recovery.

Surgical Options

Arm Hurt Throw Baseball

Many throwing injuries can be treated non-surgically, however in some severe cases surgery may be necessary.

Some common surgical procedures for throwing arm injuries include:

  • Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Reconstruction, known as Tommy John surgery, replaces the torn UCL in the elbow with a tendon from elsewhere in the body. This surgery has a high success rate for return to sport.

  • Labrum tear repairs using anchors or sutures to reattach the torn labrum in the shoulder joint. Proper rehabilitation is key after surgery.

  • Rotator cuff repairs to reattach torn tendons in the rotator cuff via sutures or anchors. This allows normal shoulder function to be restored [1].

  • Shoulder stabilization surgeries to repair instability and dislocations using techniques like Bankart repair or thermal capsulorrhaphy.

Rehabilitation with a physical therapist is critical after any throwing arm surgery to ensure full recovery of range of motion, strength, and function. Proper throwing mechanics and arm care can help prevent re-injury.

Expert Advice

Coaches and medical experts emphasize the importance of proper arm care and injury prevention for baseball players. Proper warmup, stretching, and rest days are crucial to maintaining arm health and avoiding overuse injuries. As Dr. James Andrews, renowned orthopedic surgeon, advises, “Warm up properly by stretching, running, and easy, gradual throwing. Rotate playing other positions besides pitcher. Concentrate on age-appropriate pitching guidelines”.

Michigan Medicine sports medicine physician Dr. Patrick McCulloch recommends, “Closely adhere to pitch count guidelines…to avoid overuse. Take at least 1 day off per week from throwing. Learn proper throwing mechanics from an experienced coach”. Proper throwing mechanics reduce strain on the arm.

Rest and active recovery are also important. As Dr. James Andrews suggests, “If you experience any arm pain, take a break from throwing for a few days. Apply ice, perform gentle stretches and range of motion exercises”. Allowing injuries time to heal prevents more serious damage. With proper care, players can enjoy throwing without pain.

Throwing Program Example

A gradual, progressive throwing program is essential for allowing the arm to fully heal and rebuild strength after an injury. Rushing back too soon can re-injure the arm and set recovery back further. Most experts recommend a 6-8 week program from the time you are cleared to start throwing 1.

A sample week-by-week program could look like:

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Week 1:

  • Throw from 60 feet, 2-3 sets of 25 throws
  • Focus on mechanics and building arm strength
  • Do not throw at 100% effort, go at an easy, comfortable pace

Week 2:

  • Move back to 90 feet, 2-3 sets of 25 throws
  • Again focus on mechanics, arm slot, release point
  • Build to 50-75% effort throws

Week 3:

  • Throw from 120 feet distance, 3 sets of 30 throws
  • Mix in some long toss throws up to 150 feet
  • Build up to 75% max effort on throws

Week 4:

  • Move back to 180 feet long toss distance, 3 sets of 30 throws
  • Can begin throwing off mound with catcher, 15 throws per session
  • Build up to 50% effort off mound, not full velocity

Weeks 5-6:

  • Progress to throwing batting practice 2 times per week
  • 1 bullpen session at 80% effort
  • Being to incorporate breaking pitches
  • Closely monitor arm for any recurrent pain

Week 7-8:

  • Live batting practice against hitters
  • Multiple bullpen sessions at 90-100% max effort
  • Be cleared by doctor before returning to full games

Proper rest, close monitoring, and a gradual buildup of volume and intensity is critical to come back fully healthy. The program should be tailored to each athlete and adjusted based on pain and recovery time. Throwing too soon or ramping up too fast can easily re-injure the arm or shoulder. Patience and diligence through the full return to throw protocol gives the best chance for a successful comeback.

The Importance of Arm Care

Proper arm care is critical for baseball players to maintain health and performance. Throwing puts tremendous stress on the arm, so following best practices helps minimize injury risk. It’s important to focus on prevention, but also be prepared to manage injuries properly if they occur.

Recap key prevention and management takeaways. Throwing with proper mechanics and care is vital.

Some best practices include:

  • Get on a structured throwing program that gradually builds volume
  • Maintain strength through a disciplined workout routine
  • Prioritize active recovery between throwing sessions
  • Follow a dynamic warm-up routine before throwing
  • Monitor for signs of fatigue and stop throwing before pain develops
  • Treat minor soreness with cold therapy, massage, gentle stretches
  • Rehab injuries completely before returning to throwing at full intensity
  • Consider surgical options for damaged tendons or ligaments requiring repair

With the right preparation and diligence, it’s possible to enjoy a lifetime of healthy baseball throwing. Arm injuries can be prevented and managed by making arm care a top priority.


Is arm pain common in baseball players?

A: Yes, arm pain is common in baseball players, especially pitchers, due to the repetitive and dynamic nature of the throwing motion.

Can young players experience arm pain?

A: Yes, young players are susceptible to arm pain, and it’s crucial to monitor and manage their throwing workload to prevent overuse injuries.

When should I seek professional help for arm pain?

A: If arm pain persists or worsens, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a sports medicine specialist or orthopedic doctor, for a thorough evaluation.


Arm pain when throwing a baseball is a signal from your body, indicating potential stress or strain on the muscles and joints involved in the throwing motion. Understanding the reasons behind the pain and adopting preventive measures and recovery strategies are essential for maintaining your arm’s health and longevity in the game.

So, the next time your arm sends a distress signal, listen, take action, and ensure your throwing arm remains a powerful and pain-free asset on the baseball field.

Adrian Cook
Adrian Cook

Hello, I'm Adrian Cook, and I am the author of BaseballMatchDay.com. I have a deep-rooted connection to baseball as I was once an avid player of the sport. Baseball has always held a special place in my heart, and my personal experiences as a player have shaped my understanding and love for the game. Having been on the field, I intimately understand the intricacies, challenges, and joys that come with playing baseball. It is this firsthand experience that allows me to bring a unique perspective to the content I create.

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