Why Don’t Women Play Baseball?

While baseball is often seen as a male-dominated sport, women have actually played baseball for over 150 years. In the 1940s, the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League gave over 600 women the chance to play professionally. At its peak popularity, the league drew over 900,000 fans per season.

Although opportunities have declined since then, women continue to play baseball at all levels today. From youth leagues to college and professional clubs, female participation is growing. Still, barriers remain that prevent equal gender participation in “America’s pastime.” This article will explore the history of women in baseball and the ongoing challenges they face.

History of Women in Baseball

Women have been playing baseball in the United States since the mid-1800s. The first known women’s baseball team was the Vassar College Resolutes, formed in 1866. Women’s barnstorming teams then started popping up in the early 1900s, touring the country playing local men’s teams. Some of the more prominent early teams included the Boston Bloomer Girls, the New York Female Giants, and the Cleveland Daisies.

The first professional women’s baseball league was launched in 1943 – the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL). The AAGPBL started out with just 4 teams but expanded to 10 teams at its peak. The AAGPBL ultimately lasted 12 seasons before folding in 1954. During this era, over 600 women played professional baseball in the league. Well-known players included pitcher Ila Borders and infielder Sophie Kurys.

Decline of Women’s Leagues

Women Baseball League

The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL) was founded in 1943 during World War II when many male baseball players were drafted into the military. The league attracted large crowds and media attention during its peak years in the late 1940s. However, as men returned from war, interest in the women’s league began to decline. By the early 1950s, attendance had dropped sharply.

Several factors contributed to the decline of the AAGPBL and women’s professional baseball leagues in the mid-20th century:

  • With men’s professional baseball regaining popularity after the war, fans lost interest in the women’s game. As the financial burden shifted and people stopped attending games, many teams started to fold.

  • The advent of television allowed fans to watch Major League Baseball from home instead of attending minor league or semi-pro games. This decreased attendance at women’s baseball games.

  • Traditional gender role attitudes re-emerged in the 1950s, making women’s baseball seem less socially acceptable.

  • After the 1954 season, the AAGPBL disbanded along with other women’s leagues. Women’s professional baseball nearly disappeared entirely for decades to come.

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Title IX and College Baseball

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 had a significant impact on women’s opportunities to play college baseball. Title IX prohibits sex-based discrimination in any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. This applies to athletic programs at virtually all colleges and universities.

Under Title IX, colleges and universities are required to provide athletic participation opportunities to male and female students in proportion to their enrollment. If interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex have been limited by past discrimination, institutions may need to provide greater athletic opportunities for that sex.

While Title IX led to substantial growth in women’s sports at the collegiate level, its impact on women playing college baseball was limited. Baseball is considered a “contact sport” and is exempt from the substantial proportionality requirements of Title IX. Women can try out for men’s baseball teams, but colleges are not obligated to create separate women’s baseball teams.

Very few women have ever played on men’s college baseball teams. Title IX increased athletic opportunities for women overall, but did not lead to meaningful integration of women into college baseball. Social norms and persistent gender barriers continue limiting women’s access to baseball at the collegiate level.

Social Factors

Traditional gender roles and norms have played a major role in discouraging women and girls from participating in baseball over the years. As noted in the source, baseball was seen as a “man’s game” for over 100 years, with all major league players and coaches being male until very recently.

Societal attitudes portrayed baseball as too rough, competitive, or unladylike for women. As discussed on the Wisconsin 101 site, when the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was formed in the 1940s, players were required to attend charm school and wear skirts while playing to appear more feminine. The league emphasized traditional gender norms for the time period.

Even today, persistent gender stereotypes often discourage girls and women from playing baseball from a young age. Baseball is still viewed by many as a “male” sport. Overcoming these traditional social attitudes remains an ongoing challenge for achieving gender equity in baseball participation.

Access to Resources

Women Play Baseball

Girls and women often lack access to key resources needed for playing baseball compared to boys and men. Funding for programs, facilities, equipment, and coaching focused on girls baseball is limited.

Many youth baseball leagues and high schools do not offer girls’ baseball teams, so girls are forced to play on boys’ teams if they want to participate. Girls represent only 2% of total participation in Little League baseball 1. Without designated girls’ teams and leagues, it can be difficult for girls to receive development opportunities, playing time, coaching attention, and recognition.

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Dedicated facilities for girls’ baseball are limited, with baseball fields often dominated by boys’ and men’s leagues. Girls may lack funding for equipment like bats, gloves, and uniforms since most baseball-focused sponsors target male players and teams. There are fewer experienced coaches focused on developing female players and pitching mechanics optimized for women. Resources tend to be concentrated at the elite level, making grassroots development a challenge.

Overall, the lack of funding, facilities, coaching, and other baseball resources for girls and women creates barriers to participation and talent development. Providing more equitable access to youth programs, playing fields, equipment, and knowledgeable coaching is key for growing girls’ involvement in baseball over time.

Physiological Differences

There are some key physiological differences between men and women that impact performance in baseball. A 2009 study published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics found several biomechanical differences between elite male and female pitchers. Women tend to have less upper body strength, lower ball velocities, and differences in pitching mechanics compared to men.

Specifically, the study found that women have less shoulder external rotation, elbow flexion, knee flexion, and peak ground reaction forces when pitching. Women also exhibited faster pelvis angular velocities at ball release. While women are capable of excelling at baseball, their average throwing velocities tend to be lower than men due to physiological differences in muscle mass and strength.

A review in the Sports Health journal notes that men have 50-100% greater upper body strength and 20-40% greater lower body strength on average compared to women. The combination of strength, mechanical, and velocity differences contribute to performance gaps between male and female baseball players. However, some exceptional women can still compete at the highest level, and women’s participation in baseball continues to grow over time. With proper training, female players can develop the necessary strength and skills to excel.

Recent Progress

Youth baseball participation among girls has been steadily increasing in recent decades. According to Little League, the percentage of players who were girls increased from 10% in 1974 to 25% in 2022. This growth has been driven by increased opportunities and acceptance of girls in baseball.

Major youth baseball organizations like Little League have launched initiatives to encourage more girls to play baseball. The “Grow the Game” grant program funds local leagues to recruit more female players and softball players to play baseball. Girls-only baseball tournaments like Baseball For All Nationals give opportunities for elite competition.

College baseball has also seen substantial increases in female participation thanks to Title IX. In 2016-17, women made up 2.3% of NCAA baseball players, up from just 0.5% in 2000-01. Some standout female college baseball players like Sarah Hudek have inspired more girls to pursue baseball.

While barriers remain, the participation of girls and women in most levels of baseball has steadily risen. Youth organizations and advocates have worked hard to provide more opportunities and acceptance for girls who want to play baseball.

Overcoming Barriers

Women Baseball

While women face many challenges in breaking into professional and high-level amateur baseball, there are several recent initiatives aimed at helping women and girls gain more opportunities and exposure in the sport.

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Major League Baseball has launched various development programs focused on women and girls, including elite training camps, mentorship programs, and showcases for female players. USA Baseball also provides training and competition platforms for women through their Women’s National Team program.

Annual events like Women in Baseball Week help promote and celebrate the contributions of women across all levels of baseball. These initiatives help inspire young girls to get involved and provide pathways for talented female players to gain exposure and opportunities to play at higher levels. While barriers remain, the increased focus on developing and promoting women’s baseball is an important step toward gender equity in America’s pastime.


The decline of professional women’s baseball leagues and limited participation at younger ages have resulted in far fewer female players reaching the highest levels of the sport. However, recent initiatives and role models are demonstrating that baseball is not just a men’s game. With more coaches, programs, and resources dedicated to developing women players, female participation in baseball can continue to grow.

There is still room for substantial progress at all levels of the game. More investment is needed for girls’ baseball programs and local leagues to build a solid foundation and talent pipeline. As more women play college baseball and advance to professional leagues, they can inspire the next generation. It is critical that coaches, scouts, and teams are actively recruiting promising female players.

Equal access and opportunity in baseball, starting from a young age, can shift social norms and allow the most talented athletes to excel – regardless of gender. The contributions of trailblazers and today’s rising stars are proof that women can succeed in baseball. With ongoing advocacy and support, the future is bright for empowering more girls and women to live out their baseball dreams. This will enrich the sport and broaden its reach and appeal. Baseball has the chance to lead by example and become a more inclusive game.

Adrian Cook
Adrian Cook

Hello, I'm Adrian Cook, and I am the author of BaseballMatchDay.com. I have a deep-rooted connection to baseball as I was once an avid player of the sport. Baseball has always held a special place in my heart, and my personal experiences as a player have shaped my understanding and love for the game. Having been on the field, I intimately understand the intricacies, challenges, and joys that come with playing baseball. It is this firsthand experience that allows me to bring a unique perspective to the content I create.

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